Theory and History of Ontology

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  • "History Logic" and "Bibliographia" are my other websites. "Table of Contents" gives the list of the pages, for other indexes see the "Sitemap". "Modern Ontologists" contains a table with links to the pages on the most important philosophers of the 19th and 20th centuries who have written on ontology. The "Search" function can be used to find a particular author or subject.


Bibliography on Plotinus' Criticism of Aristotle's and Stoics Categories


  1. Mariën, Bert. 1949. "Bibliografia Critica Degli Studi Plotiniani Con Rassegna Delle Loro Recensioni." In Plotino. Enneadi, 389-651. Bari: Laterza.

    In: Plotino, Enneadi. Prima versione integra e commentario critico a cura di Vincenzo Cilento. Vol. I: Enn. I, II, 1947; Vol. II: Enn. IIII, IV, 1948; Vol. III, Parte I, Enn. V, VI, 1949; Vol. III, Parte II Commento ad Enn. V, VI e Bibliografia, 1949.

    Pubblicata anche in volume a parte (1463 titoli).

  2. Bonetti, Aldo. 1971. "Studi Intorno Alla Filosofia Di Plotino." Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica no. 63:487-511.

    Review of the most significant studies on Neoplatonism beginning with Eduard Zeller (1903) up to Pietro Prini (1968).

  3. Blumenthal, Henry J. 1987. "Plotinus in the Light of Twenty Years' Scholarship, 1951-1971." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt (Anrw). Teil Ii: Principat. Band 36: Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. I. Teilband: Philosophie (Historische Einleitung; Platonismus), edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 528-570. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    "The text of this article was completed in January 1973. - Though some important work appeared thereafter, the general picture remained substantially the same four years later, when the bibliography was added. This, combined with supervening pressures, dissuaded me from attempting to rewrite the whole Forschungsbericht at that time (April 1977). Details of work known to me up to the beginning of 1977 which had not been taken into account in the article itself will be found in the bibliography, which was compiled then, at the editors' request. It also includes some works that were not thought worth mentioning in the original article. In view of the constantly impending but repeatedly delayed imminent publication of the volume in which it appears, I have made no further changes since 1977." p. 528

    "The year 1951 easily chose itself for the start of a survey of recent work on Plotinus. It saw two events of outstanding importance. First the appearance of the first volume of HENRY and SCHWYZER'S edition, undoubtedly the most important contribution to Plotinian scholarship since Porphyry published the 'Enneads'. In the same year was published SCHWYZER'S article 'Plotinos' in PAULY-WISSOWA, the first comprehensive and scholarly survey of Plotinus. It remains the best and most reliable introduction to the study of Plotinus even after the considerable progress that has been made over the last twenty years. This article will not attempt to emulate SCHWYZER'S work, or to produce what could be little more than a condensed version of it, but will refer the reader to it for an introduction, and much more, to the subject: he will find that all work of any importance up to that time has there been taken into account. Instead it will try to show what has been done since, against a background of the hitherto accepted position, and to indicate some of the more important tasks for the immediate future." p. 529.

  4. Corrigan, Kevin, and O'Cleirigh, Padraigh. 1987. "The Course of Plotinian Scholarship from 1971-1986." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt (Anrw). Teil Ii: Principat. Band 36: Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. I. Teilband: Philosophie (Historische Einleitung; Platonismus), edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 571-623. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    See in particular: The Categories and the genera of Being pp. 579-580.

  5. Dufour, Richard. 2001. "Plotinus: A Bibliography 1950-2000." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 46:235-411.

    Compiled by Richard Dufour with help in translation from Hanneke Teunissen.

    Contents: Acknowledgments 235; Introduction; 237-239; Reference Works 241; Abbreviations 243; List of collected volumes, miscellanea and Conference proceedings 253; Greek text and translations 257; Studies 271 [1542 entries] 271; Index of Themes 395; Index of Authors and Themes 401; Index of Treatises 409; Index of Greek Words 411.

    Reprinted as separate volume: Leiden, Brill, 2002.

    From the Introduction: "This bibliography covers the fruits of Plotinian scholarship over the last fifty years (1950-2000). Completed with four different indexes, it will provide students and scholars with easy access to modern Plotinian studies.

    My work derives much inspiration from Luc Brisson's bibliography of Plato, which served as an exemplary model and the principles of which have guided me throughout the compilation of this bibliography. With the exception of the indexes, the presentation of my bibliography follows the general principle of Luc Brisson's work in Lustrum (now published by Vrin).

    This bibliography aims to be exhaustive. References were systematically taken from indexes, bibliographies, journals, conference proceedings, annuals and collections of articles. A full list of these is given later.

    Fewer references are listed for 1995 and the following years due to the fact that most bibliographical reference works have not yet reached the Year 2000. L'Année Philologique, for example, has just published the volume covering the year 1997. For this reason we not only miss three full years of indexing up to 2000, but also supplements to the preceding years. It is possible, in fact, that the volume covering the year 2000 will provide bibliographic references from 1995 to 2000. In order to close the gap, I studied library catalogues, frequented bookshops and consulted most recent issues of the major journals. These efforts, however, can never contend the incredible amount of work by institutions like L'Année Philologique. As a result, the exhaustiveness of this bibliography is slowly reduced as we near the new millennium.


    Four different indexes may be consulted referring to all information in the respective entries. In order, these indexes are arranged by:

    1) Theme. Key-words are arranged in alphabetical order.

    2) Author-theme. All entries which include an author other than Plotinus are listed in this index. Sub-categories have been added in order to facilitate specific searches. It is thus possible to search for all articles pertaining to, for example, Plotinus and Aristotle.

    3) Treatise. Adhering to the Porphyrian system of classification of the Enneads, a list of studies concerning a specific treatise has been assembled. Only references which explicitly refer to one treatise are listed. For example, not every article concerning the Gnostics is automatically included in Column II, 9. All references to Gnostics may be found in the index "Author-theme" under the heading "Gnostics".

    4) Greek word. All words and expressions in ancient Greek occurring in the entries are listed in transliterated form." pp. 237-239.

  6. ———. 2009. "Bibliographie Plotinienne: 2000-2009." Études Platoniciennes no. 6:295-365.


  1. Plotinus. 1951. Plotini Opera. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.

    Editio maior: vol. I: Porphyrii Vita Plotini / Enneades 1-3 (1951); vol. II Enneades 4-5. / Plotiniana Arabica [ The Theology of Aristotle] / ad codicum fidem anglice vertit Geoffrey Lewis (1959); vol.III: Enneas 6 (1973).

  2. ———. 1964. Plotini Opera. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Editio minor: vol. I: Porphyrii vita Plotini. Enneades 1-3 (1964); vol. II; Enneades 4-5 (1977); vol. III: Enneas 6 (1982).


  1. Plotinus. 1966. Enneads. London: Heinemann.

    Greek text with and English translation by A. H. Armstrong in seven volumes.

  2. ———. 2008. Traités 42-44. Sur Les Genres De L'être, I, Ii Et Iii. Paris: GF Flammarion.

    Présentés, traduits et annotés par Luc Brisson.

  3. ———. 1994. Plotino. Enneadi Vi 1-3. Trattati 42-44 Sui Generi Dell'essere. Napoli: Loffredo.

    Introduzione, testo greco, traduzione, commento a cura di Margherita Isnardi Parente.


  1. Anton, John P. 1976. "Plotinus' Approach to Categorical Theory." In The Significance of Neoplatonism, edited by Harris, Ramson Baine, 83-100. Norfolk: International Society for Neoplatonism Studies.

  2. Aubenque, Pierre. 1985. "Plotin Et Dexippe Exégètes Des Catégories." In Aristotelica. Mélanges Offerts À M. De Corte, 7-40. Bruxelles: Ousia.

  3. ———. 1991. "Une Occasion Manquée: La Genèse Avortée De La Distinction Entre L' "Étant" Et Le "Quelque Chose"." In Études Sur Le Sophiste De Platon, edited by Aubenque, Pierre, 365-387. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

    Repris dans: P. Aubenque - Problèmes aristotéliciens. I. Philosophie théorique - Paris, Vrin 2009 pp. 307-320

  4. Baltzly, Dirk C. 1998. "Porphyry and Plotinus on the Reality of Relations." Journal of Neoplatonic Studies no. 6:49-75.

    "Porphyry and Plotinus disagree over the question whether Aristotle was successful in dividing the world at its joints in the Categories, with Plotinus (Enn. VI, 1-3) arguing that he was not successful, Porphyry (in his commentary on the Categories) arguing that he was. Porphyry, however, has the clearer account of relations and relational properties and, consequently, Plotinus' account does not adequately meet objections to the autonomy of Aristotle's category of relation. This is a problem for Plotinus because he retains the category of relation in his own five-fold scheme of categories."

  5. Bauloye, Laurence, and Rutten, Christian. 2004. "Genres Et Catégories Chez Aristote, Chez Plotin Et Chez Averroès." In Platon Et Aristote. Dialectique Et Métaphysique, edited by Tsimbidaros, Ilias, 103-119. Bruxelles: Ousia.

  6. Caluori, Damian. 2008. "Plotinus on Primary Being." In Substantia - Sic Et Non. Eine Geschichte Des Substanzbegriffs Von Der Antike Bis Zur Gegenwart in Einzelbeiträgen, edited by Gutschmidt, Holger, Lang-Balestra, Antonella and Segalerba, Gianluigi, 85-103. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.

  7. Charles-Saget, Annick. 1988. "Polémique Et Philosophie. Plotin, Ennéades Vi 1, 4-5." Études Philosophiques:157-165.

  8. Chiaradonna, Riccardo. 2002. Sostanza Movimento Analogia. Plotino Critico Di Aristotele. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  9. ———. 2004. "The Categories and the Status of the Physical World: Plotinus and the Neo-Platonic Commentators." In Philosophy, Science and Exegesis in Greek, Arabic and Latin Commentaries (Vol. One), edited by Adamson, Peter, Baltussen, Han and Stone, M.W.F., 121-136. London: Institute of Classical Studies, University of London.

  10. ———. 2004. "Le Categorie in Plotino: Tra Logica E Fisica: Il Caso Della Sostanza ( Enn. Vi 3[44], 8.12-37)." In Metafisica Logica Filosofia Della Natura. I Termini Delle Categorie Aristoteliche Dal Mondo Antico All'età Moderna, edited by Canone, Eugenio, 137-154. Sarzana: Agorà Edizioni.

  11. Cilento, Vincenzo. 1973. "Categorie Del Sensibile." In Saggi Su Plotino, 83-96. Milano: Mursia.

    Recensione di: Rutten Christian Rutten - Les catégories du monde sensible dans les Ennéades de Plotin - Paris, Les Belles Lettres 1961.

  12. Collette, Bernard. 2002. Dialectique Et Hénologie Chez Plotin. Bruxelles: Ousia.

    "Qu'est que le monde intelligible pour Plotin et comment l'homme peut-il y accéder ? Telles sont les deux questions à la base de cet ouvrage dans lequel l'auteur a choisi de confronter le dire et le faire, la doctrine métaphysique et la pratique philosophique. Pour y répondre, il analyse, dans un premier temps, la théorie des facultés de connaître et celle du langage telles qu'elles se laissent dessiner au fil des Ennéades, afin de mettre en évidence à la fois les potentialités propres à chacune de ces facultés et le type de discours philosophique le plus apte à révéler le monde intelligible dans toute sa complexité. De la première recherche, il ressort que : ce que Platon, dans le Sophiste, appelle la " science des hommes libres " apparaît, chez Plotin, comme la "partie précieuse de la philosophie" dont le lieu propre est le Noûs. Dans la deuxième partie de l'ouvrage, l'auteur explique comment, dans le traité VI.2 (43) intitulé Des genres premiers de l'Être, Plotin se sert de la méthode dialectique pour révéler les cinq genres premiers que sont l'être, le mouvement, le repos, le même et l'autre. Par là, il nous donne l'occasion de rentrer dans l'un des plus difficiles traités plotiniens et aussi l'un des moins commentés, où le monde intelligible se dévoile comme une suntaxis, un système d'ordonnancement, à travers les deux structures héno-logiques que sont le genre-espèces et le tout-parties."

  13. ———. 2007. Plotin Et L'ordonnancement De L'être. Paris: Vrin.

  14. Donini, Pierluigi. 2006. "Plotino E La Tradizione Dei Neoplatonici E Dei Commentatori Aristotelici." In Plotino E L'ontolologia, edited by Bianchetti, Matteo, 17-32. Milano: Albo Versorio.

  15. Dufour, Richard. 2006. "Plotin Et Les Stoïciens." Études Platoniciennes no. 3:177-194.

  16. Evangeliou, Christos. 1982. "The Ontological Basis of Plotinus' Criticism of Aristotle's Theory of Categories." In The Structure of Being. A Neoplatonic Approach, edited by Harris, Ramson Baine, 73-82. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  17. ———. 1985. "Aristotle's Doctrine of Predicables and Porphyry's Isagoge." Journal of the History of Philosopy no. 23:15-34.

    "Porphyry's Isagoge was intended as an introductory study to the dialectical methods by way of clarifying the meanings and logical functions of the five predicable terms. To consider the Isagoge as an introduction to Aristotle's Topics or Categories and to criticize Porphyry for failing to present accurately the doctrines of Aristotle is therefore unfair and misleading."

  18. ———. 1987. "The Plotinian Reduction of Aristotle's Categories." Ancient Philosophy no. 7:147-162.

    Reprinted in: A. Preus, J. P. Antony (eds.) - Aristotle's ontology - Albany, State University of New York Press, 1992, pp. 47-67

  19. ———. 1988. Aristotle's Categories and Porphyry. Leiden: Brill.

  20. ———. 1994. "Plotinus on the Stoic Set of Categories." Journal of Neoplatonic Studies no. 2.

    "In Ennead VI, 1 Plotinus raises objections to what he regarded as a Stoic set of categories comparable to Aristotle's. Both were unacceptable to Plotinus because he wanted to revive the Platonic genera of being."

  21. ———. 2001. "Plotinus' Criticism of Materialism." In Neoplatonism and Indian Philosophy, edited by Gregorios, Paulos, 199-209. New York: State of New York University Press.

    "In Ennead VI. 1, Plotinus criticized not only Aristotle's set of categories, but also what he considered as the Stoic set of categories. He found both sets of categories unacceptable for many reasons, but especially for their inapplicability to the intelligible realm of being which, for him, is more important than the realm of sensible becoming. The study examines critically the reasons for Plotinus's criticism of the Stoic doctrine of categories, to the logic of which he objected primarily because of its presupposed ontological materialism."

  22. ———. 2002. "Plotinus' Set of Categories for the Kosmos Aisthetos." In Neoplatonism and Nature. Studies in Plotinus' Enneads, edited by Wagner, Michael F., 209-239. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    "In Ennead VI. 1, Plotinus criticized Aristotle's categories one by one. He found the Aristotelian doctrine of categories as a whole unacceptable for many reasons, but especially for its inapplicability to the intelligible realm of being and its superficiality regarding the sensible realm of becoming, for which it was intended. In Ennead VI.3, he proposed a new set of categories for the kosmos aisthetos, which is characterized by a reduction of Aristotle's set by fifty per cent and by the introduction of motion as one of the five categories. The study examines critically Plotinus's reasons for such a radical reduction and such a Platonic innovation."

  23. Gerson, Lloyd P. 1994. Plotinus. New York: Routledge.

    See in particular Chapter Five: Categories and the tradition pp. 79-103: 1. The criticism of Stoic categories 79; 2. The criticism of Aristotle's categories 84; 3. Aristotelian essentialism 93, 4. The Plotinian categories 96-103 (Notes to Chapter Five: 256-261).

  24. Graeser, Andreas. 1972. Plotinus and the Stoics. A Preliminary Study. Leiden: Brill.

    See in particular Part II. Essays - Chapter IV: Plotinus on the Stoic Categories of Being pp. 87-100.

  25. Gurtler, Gary M. 1988. "The Origin of Genera. Ennead Vi, 2,[43],20." Dionysius no. 12:3-15.

    "Plotinus' apparent incapability of accomplishing his general purpose in VI, 1-3 [42-44] and his specific task in VI, 2[43] 20 of relating Neoplatonic ontology and Aristotelian logic is due to a mistranslation and misinterpretation of two sections, vi, 2, 20, 4-6 and vi, 2, 20, 20-32."

  26. Haas, Frans 2001. "Did Plotinus and Porphyry Disagree on Aristotle's Categories?" Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 46:492-526.

    "In this paper I propose a reading of Plotinus Enneads VI.1-3 [41-43] On the genera of being which regards this treatise as a coherent whole in which Aristotle's Categories is explored in a way that turns it into a decisive contribution to Plotinus' Platonic ontology. In addition, I claim that Porphyry's Isagoge and commentaries on the Categories start by adopting Plotinus' point of view, including his notion of genus, and proceed by explaining its consequences for a more detailed reading of the Categories. After Plotinus' integration of the Categories into the Platonic frame of thought Porphyry saw the possibilities of exploiting the Peripatetic tradition both as a means to support the Platonic interpretation of the Categories and as a source for solutions to traditional questions. His allegiance to a division of being into ten, and his emphasis on semantics rather than ontology can be explained from this orientation. In the light of our investigation the alleged disagreement between Plotinus and Porphyry on the Categories changes its appearance completely. There are differences, but these can be best explained as confirmation and extension of Plotinus' perspective on the Categories and its role in Platonism."

  27. ———. 2004. "Context and Strategy of Plotinus' Treatise on the Genera of Being ( Enn. Vi 1-3 [42-44])." In Aristotle E I Suoi Esegeti Nepolatonici. Logica E Ontologia Nelle Interpretazioni Greche E Arabe, edited by Celluprica, Vincenza and D'Ancona, Cristina, 39-53. Napoli: Biblipolis.

    Atti del Convegno Internazionale. Roma 19-20 ottobre 2001.

  28. Hadot, Pierre. 1974. "L'harmonie Des Philosophies De Plotin Et D'Aristote Selon Prophyre Dans Le Commentaire De Dexippe Sur Les Catégories." In Plotino E Il Neoplatonismo in Oriente E in Occidente, edited by Cerulli, Vincenzo, 31-47. Roma: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei.

    Atti del Convegno internazionale. (Roma, 5-9 ottobre 1970)

  29. Hartmann, Eduard von. 1899. Geschichte Der Metaphysik. Leipzig: Hermann Haacke.

    On Plotinus see in the first of the two volumes:

    Plotin als Wendepunkt der alten und mittelalterlichen Philosophie.

    Plotins Verhältnis zu den Vorgängern 106; a) Die Kategorien der Sinnenwelt 108; Die relativistischen Kategorien und die Usia 108; Der Stoff 111; Quantität 113; Qualität 115; Kraft 117; Bewegung und Ruhe 118; Zeit 120; Raum 122; Relation 123; Kausalität 125; Universelle Sympathie 127; Teleologischer Panlogismus 128; Notwendigkeit 129; Aktive und passive Möglichkeit 131; Die Lehre vom intelligiblen Stoff 133; b) Die Kategorien der intelligiblen Welt 135; Das Problem 135; Quantität, Qualität und Relation vom Intelligiblen ausgeschlossen 137; Das intelligible Ineinandersein der Ideen 139; Ständigkeit und intelligible Bewegung 141; Die intellektuelle Anschauung und ihr Geschautes 144; Energie und Hypostase 145; Nus, Logos und Sophia 147; Aufstieg vom Nus zum Einen 149; c) Das Eine im Verhältnis zu den Kategorien 153; Das Ringen nach dem Substanzbegriff 153; Das Eine als überseiender Grund des Seins 155; Die positiven Bestimmungen des Einen 157; Die "analogen" Bestimmungen des Einen 159; d) Das Verhältnis der drei Kategoriensphären 160; Unterschied und Verwandtschaft der Kategorien der drei Sphären 160; Richtiges und Unrichtiges in Plotins Kategorienlehre 162; Die Kategorien in der Weltseele 164; Das Intelligible in der Weltseele und im Nus 166; Der Nus als logische Allmöglichkeit 169; Die Immanenz des Einen in den übrigen Sphären 172; Die Stufenreihe der Hypostasen 174-186.

  30. Henry, Paul. 1973. "Trois Apories Orales De Plotin Sur Les Catégories D'Aristote." In Zetesis. Festschrift Für E. De Strycker, 234-265. Antwerpen/Utrecht: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel.

  31. ———. 1987. "Apories Orales De Plotin Sur Les Catégories D'Aristote." In Aristoteles. Werk Und Wirkung. Paul Moraux Zum 65 Geburtstag Gewidmet - Band 2: Kommentierung, Uberlieferung, Nachleben, edited by Wiesner, Jürgen, 120-156. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  32. Lask, Emil. 1911. Die Logik Der Philosophie Und Die Kategorienlehre: Eine Studie Über Den Herrschaftsbereich Der Logischen Form. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr.

    Second edition 1923 (E. Lask - Werke - Vol. 2); reprinted in 1993 and in 2003 by Dietrich Scheglmann Reprintverlag, Jena, with the essay Die Lehre vom Urteil.

    On Plotinus see the IV Chapter: Die philosophischen Kategorien in der Geschichte der theorischen Philosophie. pp. 222-243.

  33. ———. 2002. La Logique De La Philosophie Et La Doctrine Des Catégories. Étude Sur La Forme Logique Et Sa Souveraineté. Paris: Vrin.

    Traduit de l'allemand par Jean-François Courtine, Marc de Launay, Dominique Pradelle et Philippe Quesne.

    Table des matières: Préface de Marc de Launay 7; Avant-propos 31; Introduction 33; Première partie: Logique des catégories de l'être 53; Seconde partie: Logique des catégories philosophiques 107; Chapitre I: Logique des catégories philosophiques 107; Chapitre II: L'image d'ensemble du système des catégories 147; Chapitre III: Las connaissance philosophique 189; Chapitre IV: Les catégories philosophiques dans l'histoire mde la philosophie théorique 226; Conclusion 265; Appendice (Extrait d'une lettre à Heinrich Rickert du 27 novembre 1910) 268; Glossaire 281; Index nominum 287-288.

    Sur Plotin voir: Chapitre IV, Première section. Aristote. Plotin. Le Moyen Age pp. 226-243.

  34. Maskaleut, Steve. 2005. "Critique Du Relatif Par Plotin: Le Traité Des Genres De L'être Vi, 1[42], 6-9." Dionysius no. 23:7-29.

    "Plotinus' treatise on the kinds of being (VI, 1[42]) criticizes the category of the relative ( pros ti) found in Aristotle and in Stoic writers. Starting from a different foundation, Plotinus postulates certain Platonic principles which control his own theory of the relative -- a theory he does not explain, but which he uses in part in order to support his criticism. Examination of the premises of Plotinus' criticism, its logic, and its limitations allows us to evaluate its pertinence compared with the two other theories of the relative against which it argues. Plotinus effects a separation between two different kinds of relative. From this premise come certain consequences : 1) Plotinus does not succeed in giving sense and unity to the relative except by way of detour into the Forms. 2) Thus Plotinus does not respond directly to the problem posed by the relative. 3) The unity of the relative in Aristotle implicates a necessary variability which Plotinus has not taken into account, because it conflicts with the idea of a homogenous ordered sequence. 4) The question of what relation the Forms have to each other remains open."

  35. Montet, Danielle. 1996. Archéologie Et Généalogie. Plotin Et La Théorie Platonicienne Des Genres. Grenoble: J. Millon.

  36. Nebel, Gerhard. 1929. Plotins Kategorien Der Intelligiblen Welt. Ein Beitrag Zur Geschichte Der Idee. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr.

    The first part is on the theory of forms; the second on the theory of categories.

  37. Rutten, Christian. 1961. Les Catégories Du Monde Sensible Dans Les Ennéades De Plotin. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

  38. Strange, Steven K. 1987. "Plotinus, Porphyry, and the Neoplatonic Interpretation of the Categories." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Vol. 36: Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Ii. Teilband: Philosophie (Platonismus, [Forts.]; Aristotelismus), edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 955-974. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  39. Szlezák, Thomas Alexander. 1975. "[Rezenzion:] K. Wurm, Substanz Und Qualität. Ein Beitrag Zur Interpretation Der Plotinischen Traktate Vi 1,2 Und 3, 1973." Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen no. 227:216-225.

  40. Trendelenburg, Friedrich Adolf. 1846. Geschichte Der Kategorienlehre. Zwei Abhandlungen. Berlin: G. Bethge.

    I: Aristotle Kategorienlehre; II: Die Kategorienlehre in der Geschichte der Philosophie.

    Reprinted Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1963 and 1979.

    On Plotinus see pp. 232-241.

  41. Wurm, Klaus. 1973. Substanz Und Qualität. Ein Beitrag Zur Interpretation Der Plotinischen Traktate Vi 1, 2 Und 3. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Inhalt: Vorwort V; Einleitung und Übersicht 1; Erster Teil. Substanz und Qualität bei Platon und Aristoteles; Kapitel I. Der kategoriale Gegensatz von Sein und ERscheinung und die Form seiner Vermittlung bei Platon 7; Kapitel II. Die aristotelische Kategorienlehre als Theorie der bewegten Wirklichkeit 60; Zweiter Teil. Substanz und Qualität bei Plotin; Kapitel III. Die kategoriale Unterschiedenheit von geistigen und sinnlich wharnehmbarem Sein als Ausgangspunkt der plotinischen Aristoteles-Kritik 133; Kapitel IV. Die Trennung von Seinsaussage und Seinsbegründung als Voraussetzung für die Anerkernnung der aristotelischen Kategorien durch die Platoniker 167; Kapitel VC. Plotinus Frage nach der Leistung des diskursiven Denkens bei der Seinserkenntnis als Grundlage seiner Aussagen zum Kategorienproblem 221-262.

  42. Zeller, Eduard. 1903. Die Philosophie Der Griechen in Ihrer Geschichtlichen Entwicklung Dargestellt. Leipzig: Fues Verlag.

    IV. Edition Band III, 2

  43. Zhyrkova, Anna. 2004. "The Doctrine of Categories in Neoplatonism." In Being or Good? Metamorphoses of Neoplatonism, edited by Kijewska, Agnieszka. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.


  1. Les Sources De Plotin. Dix Exposés Et Discussions. 1960. Genève: Fondation Hardt.

    Content: by E. R. Dodds: Numenius and Ammonius; W. Theiler: Plotin zwischen Platon und Stoa; Pierre Hadot: Être, vie, pensée chez Plotin et avant Plotin; H: C. Puech: Plotin et les gnostiques; H. Dorrie: Die Frage nach dem Transzendenten im Mittelplatonismus; V. Cilento: Mito e poesia nelle Enneadi di Plotino; R. Harder: Quelle oder Tradition?; H: R. Schwyzer: "Bewusst" und "unbewusst" bei Plotin; A. H. Armstrong: The background of the doctrine "That the intelligibles are not outside the intellect"; P. Henry: Une comparaison chez Aristote, Aléxandre et Plotin.

  2. Armstrong, Arthur Hilary. 1940. The Architecture of the Intelligible Universe in the Philosophy of Plotinus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Reprint: Amsterdam, Hakkert, 1967.

  3. ———. 1967. "Plotinus." In The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy, 193-268. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  4. ———. 1979. Plotinian and Christian Studies. London: Variorum Reprints.

  5. Bales, Eugene. 1983. "A Heideggerian Interpretation of Negative Theology in Plotinus." Thomist no. 47:197-208.

  6. Bréhier, Émile. 1928. La Philosophie De Plotin. Paris: Vrin.

    Dernière réimpression: 2000.

  7. Brisson, Luc. 2000. "Le Logos Chez Plotin." In Ontologie Et Dialogue. Mélanges En Hommage À Pierre Aubenque Avec Sa Collaboration À L'occasion De Son 70e Anniversaire, edited by Cordero, Nestor-Luis, 47-68. Paris: Vrin.

  8. Brunner, Fernand. 1990. "L'aspect Rationnel Et L'aspect Religieux De La Philosophie De Plotin." Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie no. 122:417-430.

  9. Bussanich, John. 1988. The One and Its Relation to Intellect in Plotinus. A Commentary on Selected Texts. Brill: Leiden.

  10. Chiaradonna, Riccardo. 2004. "Plotino E La Teoria Degli Universali. Enn. Vi 3 [44], 9." In Aristotele E I Suoi Esegeti Neoplatonici. Logica E Ontologia Nelle Interpretazioni Greche E Arabe.

    Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Roma 19-20 Ottobre 2001, edited by Celluprica, Vincenza and D'Ancona Costa, Cristina, 1-35. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  11. ———. 2009. Plotino. Roma: Carocci.

  12. Chrétien, Jean-Louis. 1989. "L'analogie Selon Plotin." Études Philosophiques:305-318.

  13. Cilento, Vincenzo. 1973. Saggi Su Plotino. Milano: Mursia.

  14. Collette, Bernard. 2002. Dialectique Et Hénologie Chez Plotin. Bruxelles: Ousia.

  15. Collette-Ducic, Bernard. 2007. Plotin Et L'ordonnancement De L'être. Étude Sur Les Fondements Et Les Limites De La "Détermination". Paris: Vrin.

  16. Corrigan, Kevin. 1987. "Amelius, Plotinus and Porphyry on Being, Intellect and the One. A Reappraisal." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Vol. 36: Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Ii. Teilband: Philosophie (Platonismus, [Forts.]; Aristotelismus), edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 975-993. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  17. ———. 2005. Reading Plotinus. A Practical Introduction to Neoplatonism. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press.

  18. D'Ancona, Cristina. 2006. "The Arabic Version of Enn. Iv 7[2] and Its Greek Model." In Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy. From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebraion of Richard M. Frank, edited by Montgomery, James E., 127-155. Leuven: Peeters.

  19. Deck, John N. 1967. Nature, Contemplation, and the One. A Study in the Philosophy of Plotinus. Toronto: Toronto University Press.

  20. Fielder, John. 1982. "Plotinus and Self-Predication." In The Structure of Being. A Neoplatonic Approach, edited by Harris, Ramson Baine, 83-89. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  21. Gerson, Lloyd P. 1994. "Plotinus and the Rejection of Aristotelian Metaphysics." In Aristotle in Late Antiquity, edited by Schrenk, Lawrence P., 3-21. Washington: The Catholic University Press of America.

  22. ———. 1994. Plotinus. New York: Routledge.

  23. ———, ed. 1996. The Cambridge Companion to Plotinus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  24. ———. 2002. "Being and Knowing in Plotinus." In Neoplatonism and Indian Philosophy, edited by Gregorios, Paulos Mar, 107-125. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    "This paper is a study of Plotinus's analysis of the idea behind Parmenides' famous claim that "it is the same thing for thinking and for being". Plotinus's analysis depends on his reading of Plato as well as his co-option of Aristotle in the service of Platonism. It also depends on his original insights into self -consciousness as a property of cognition and on his non-representationalist theory of knowledge."

  25. Graeser, Andreas. 1972. Plotinus and the Stoics. A Preliminary Study. Leiden: Brill.

  26. Hadot, Pierre. 1999. Plotin, Porphyre. Études Néoplatoniciennes. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

  27. Halfwassen, Jens. 1992. Der Aufstieg Zum Einen. Untersuchungen Zu Platon Und Plotin. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner.

    Zweite, um einen Forschungsbericht erweiterte Auflage, München/Leipzig: K.G. Saur, 2006

  28. ———. 2004. Plotin Und Der Neuplatonismus. München: C. H. Beck.

  29. Henry, Paul. 1938. Études Plotiniennes. Paris: Desclée De Brouwer.

    Deux volumes: I. Les états du texte de Plotin (1938); II. Les manuscrits des Ennéades (1941)

  30. Horn, Christoph. 1995. Plotin Über Sein, Zahl Und Einheit. Eine Studie Zu Den Systematischen Grundlagen Der Enneaden. Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner,.

  31. Isnardi Parente, Margherita. 1984. Introduzione a Plotino. Bari: Laterza.

  32. Leroux, Georges. 1974. "Logique Et Dialectique Chez Plotin. Ennéade 1.3 (20)." Phoenix no. 28:180-192.

    "This passage provides a statement of the distinction between dialectic and logic which aids the understanding of the subsequent development of the latter as a separate discipline. Plotinus also sets up a contrast between the philosophy of the Stoics and the Peripatetics."

  33. Meijer, Pieter A. 1992. Plotinus on the Good or the One (Enneads Vi, 9). An Analytical Commentary. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.

  34. Moutsopoulos, Evanghélos. 2005. "De Quelques Conceptions Préplotiniennes De La Notion De Participation." Philosophia.Yearbook of the Research Center for Greek Philosophy atthe Academy of Athens no. 35:211-215.

    "All mentions of the notion of participation (' methexis') prior to Plotinus have influenced his considerations on it, primarily, but not exclusively ontologically, the architectonic of the Plotinian system being directly inspired from Plato's Sophist. The eclosion of the notion of ' methexis' seems to have followed a long itinerary before its flourishing within the framework of Neoplatonism."

  35. Narbonne, Jean-Marc. 2001. La Métaphysique De Plotin. Suivi De Heidegger - Plotin: Henôsis Et Ereignis. Paris: Vrin.

  36. ———. 2001. Hénologie, Ontologie Et Ereignis (Plotin – Proclus – Heidegger). Paris: Belles Lettres.

  37. O'Brien, Denis. 1991. Plotinus on the Origin of Matter. An Exercise in the Interpretation of the Enneads. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  38. ———. 1999. "La Matière Chez Plotin: Son Origine, Sa Nature." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 44:45-71.

  39. O'Meara, Dominic J. 1975. Structures Hiérarchiques Dans La Pensée De Plotin. Étude Historique Et Interprétative. Leiden: Brill.

  40. ———. 1993. Plotinus. An Introduction to the Enneads. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  41. Oosthout, Henri. 1991. Modes of Knowledge and the Transcendental. An Introduction to Plotinus Ennead 5.3 [49] with a Commentary and Translation. Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner.

  42. Rist, John M. 1967. Plotinus: The Road to Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  43. Stamatellos, Giannis. 2007. Plotinus and the Presocratics. A Philosophical Study of Presocratic Influences in Plotinus' Enneads. New York: State University of New York Press.

  44. Torchia, Natale Joseph. 1993. Plotinus, Tolma, and the Descent of Being. An Exposition and Analysis. New York: Peter Lang.